Publications. Center for BioComplexity


For more publications, see CBC faculty, postdoc, and graduate student individual websites.
For Simon A Levin's publications, click here.
Select Publications 2024
Choquette-Levy, N., Wildemeersch, M., Santos, F.P., Levin, S.A., Oppenheimer, M., and E.U. Weber. 2024. Prosocial preferences improve climate risk management in subsistence farming communities. Nature Sustainability. .pdf
Crabtree, S.A., Wren, C.D., Dixit, A., and S.A. Levin. 2024. Influential individuals can promote prosocial practices in heterogeneous societies: A mathematical and agent-based model. PNAS Nexus 3(7): 224: 1116674. .pdf
Deng, J., Taylor, W., Levin, S.A., and S. Saavedra. 2024. On the limits to invasion prediction using coexistence outcomes. Journal of Theoretical Biology 577: 1116674. .pdf
Gibbs, T., Gellner, G., Levin, S.A., McCann, K.S., Hastings, A., and J.M. Levine. 2024. When can higher-order interactions resolve the species coexistence? Ecology Letters 27: e14458. .pdf
Hagstron, G.I., Stock, C.A., Luo, J.Y., and S.A. Levin. 2024. Impact of dynamic phytoplankton stoichiometry on global scale patterns of nutrient limitation, nitrogen fixation, and carbon export. Global Biochemical Cycles. .pdf
Junquera, V., Schlüter, M., Rocha, J., Wunderling, N., Levin, S.A., Rubenstein, D.I., Castella, J.C., and P. Meyfroidt. 2024. Crop booms as regime shifts. Royal Society Open Science 11: 231571. .pdf
Oh, W.S., Muneepeerakul, R., Rubenstein, D., and S. Levin. 2024. Emergent network patterns of internal displacement in Somalia driven by natural disasters and conflicts. Global Environmental Change 84: 102973. .pdf
Patterson, D., Levin, S., Staver, A.C., and J. Touboul. 2024. Pattern formation in mesic savannas. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 83(3). .pdf
Perri, S., Levin, S.A., Cerasoli, S., and A. Porporato. 2024. Socio-political dynamics in clean energy transition. Environmental Research Letters 19(7): 074017. .pdf
Select Publications 2023
Anderies, J.M., and S.A. Levin. 2023. "Conservation of fragility and the collapse of social orders." In How Worlds Collapse: What History, Systems, and Complexity Can Teach Us About Our Modern World and Fragile Future, eds. M. Centeno, P. Callahan, P. Larcey, and T. Patterson, 262-295. New York: Routledge.
Dasgupta, P., and S. Levin. 2023. Economic factors underlying biodiversity loss. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 378 (1881): 20220197. .pdf
Forrest, S., Kinzig, A., Feldman, S., Graham, A.L., Levin, S., Rexford, J., and E. Schrom. (2023, January 11). Mother Nature's 7 lessons for a safer world. Nautilus. To read, click here.
Hagstrom, G.I., and S.A. Levin. 2023. "Phase transitions and the theory of early warning indicators for critical transitions." In How Worlds Collapse: What History, Systems, and Complexisty Can Teach Us About Our Modern World and Fragile Future, eds. M. Centeno, P. Callahan, P. Larcey, and T. Patterson, 358-374. New York: Routledge.
Perri, S., Levin, S., Hedin, L.O., Wunderling, N., and A.M. Porporato. 2023. Socio-political feedback on the path to net zero. One Earth 6: 1-13. .pdf
Schrom, E., Kinzig, A., Forrest, S., et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2023. Challenges in cybersecurity: Lessons from biological defense systems. Mathematical Biosciences 362: 109024. .pdf
Walker, B., Crépin, A.-S., Nyström, M., et al. 2023. Response diversity as a sustainability strategy. Nature Sustainability. .pdf
Xu, L., Wang, J., Patterson, D., and S.A. Levin. 2023. Non-equilibrium early-warning signals for critical transitions in ecological systems. PNAS 120 (5): e2218663120. .pdf
Select Publications 2022
Carlson, A.K., Taylor, W.W., DeVries, D.R., et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2022. A U.S. perspective on the ten steps to responsible inland fisheries. Fisheries 47(2): 68-77. .pdf
Junquera, V., Rubenstein, D.I., Grêt-Regamey, A., and F. Knaus. 2022. Structural change in agricultural and farmers' social contracts: Insights from a Swiss mountain region. Agricultural Systems 200: 103435. .pdf
Krueger, E.H., Constantino, S.M., Centeno, M.A., Elmqvist, T., Weber, E.U., and S. A. Levin. 2022. Governing sustainable transformations of urban social-ecological-technological systems. npj Urban Sustainability 2, 10. To read, click here.
Krueger, E.H., McPhearson, T., and S. A. Levin. 2022. Integrated assessment of urban water supply security and resilience: Towards a streamlined approach. Environmental Research Letters 17(7): 075006. .pdf
Martiny, A.C., Hagstrom, G.I., DeVries, T., Letscher, R.T., Britten, G.L., Garcia, C.A., Galbraith, E., Karl, D., Levin, S.A., Lomas, M.W., Moreno, A.R., Talmy, D., Wang, W., and K. Matsumoto. 2022. Marine phytoplankton resilience may moderate oligotropic ecosystem responses and biogeochemical feedbacks to climate change. Limnology and Oceanography 9999: 1-2. .pdf
Oh, W., Carmona-Cabrero, A., Muñoz-Carpena, R., and R. Muneepeerakul. 2022. On the interplay among multiple factors: Effects of factor configuration in a proof-of-concept migration agent-based model. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Stimulation 259(2): 1-7. .pdf
Perri, S., Molini, A., Hedin, L.O., and A. Porporato. 2022. Contrasting effects of aridity and seasonality on global salinization. Nature Geoscience 15: 375-381. .pdf
Qiu, Z., Espinoza, B., Vasconcelos, V.V., et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2022. Understanding the coevolution of mask wearing and epidemics: A network perspective. PNAS 119(26): e2123355119. .pdf
Rosenkrantz, D.J., Vullikanti, A., Ravi, S.S., Stearns, R.E., Levin, S., Poor, H.V., and M.V. Marathe. 2022. Fundamental limitations on efficiently forecasting certain epidemic measures in network models. PNAS 119(4): e2109228119. .pdf
Solé, R., and S.A. Levin, organizers. 2022. Ecological Complexity and the Biosphere: The Next 30 Years: A Theme Issue Compiled and Edited by Ricard Solé and Simon A. Levin. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: 377(1857). .pdf
Solé, R., and S.A. Levin. 2022. Introduction: Ecological complexity and the biosphere: The next 30 years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: 377(1857): 20210376. .pdf
Select Publications 2021
Carlson, A.K., Rubenstein, D.I., and S.A. Levin. 2021. Modeling Atlantic herring fisheries as multiscalar human-natural systems. Fisheries Research 236: 105855. .pdf

Carlson, A.K., Young, T., Centeno, M.A., Levin, S.A., and D.I. Rubensstein. 2021. Boat to bowl: Resilience through network rewiring of a community-supported fishery amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Environmental Research Letters 16: 034054. .pdf

Karatayev, V.A., Vasconcelos,V.V., Lafuite, A.-S., Levin, S.A., Bauch, C.T., and M. Anand. 2021. A well-timed switch from local to global agreements accelerates climate change mitigation. Nature Communications 12(1). .pdf
Levin, S.A.. and A.W. Lo, organizers. 2021. PNAS Special Feature on Evolutionary Models of Financial Markets 118(26). For the complete issue with the special feature, click here.
Levin, S.A.. Milner. H.V, and C. Perrings, organizers. 2021. PNAS Special Feature on Political Polarization118(50). For the complete issue with the special feature, click here.
Levin, S.A. and T. Xepapadeas. 2021. On the evolution of economic and ecological systems. Annual Review of Resource Economics 13:
To read, click here.

Morris, D.H., Rossine, F.W., Plotkin, J.B., and S.A. Levin. 2021. Optimal, near-optimal, and robust epidemic control. Communications Physics 4(1): 1-8. .pdf
Romano, R. and S.A.. 2021. Sunsetting as an adaptive strategy. PNAS Special Feature on Evolutionary Models of Financial Markets 118(26): e2015258118. .pdf
Saad-Roy, C.M., Morris, S.E., Metcalf, C.J.E., Mina, M.J., Baker, R.E., Farrar, J., Holmes, E.C., Pybus, O.G., Graham, A. L., Levin, S.A., Grenfell, B.T., and C.E. Wagner. 2021. Epidemiological and evolutionary considerations of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dosing regimes. Science 372(6540): 363-370. .pdf
Santos, F.P., Levin, S.A., and V.V. Vasconcelos. 2021. Biased perceptions explain collective action deadlocks and suggest new mechanisms to prompt cooperation. iScience 24(4): 102375. .pdf
Xu, L., Patterson, D., Staver, A.C., Levin, S.A., and J. Wang. 2021. Unifying deterministic and stochastic ecological dynamics via a landscape-flux approach. PNAS 118(24): e2103779118. .pdf
Select Publications 2020
Benth, F., Eikeset, A., Levin S.A., and W. Ren. 2020. Analysis of the risk premium in the forward market for salmon. Journal of Commodity Markets. .pdf
Carlson, A.K.,Taylor, W..W., Rubenstein, D.I., Levin, S.A., and J. Liu. 2020. Global marine fishing across space and time. Sustainability 12(11), 4714. .pdf
Carlson, A.K. Levin, S.A., and D.I. Rubenstein. 2020. New Jersey's small, networked farms are a model for a more resilient food system. The Conversation (June 3, 2020). Read here.
Garcia, C.A., Hagstrom, G.I., Larkin, A., Ustick, L., Levin, S.A., Lomas, M.W., and A.C. Martiny. 2020. Linking regional shifts in microbial genome adaptation with surface ocean biogeochemistry. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. .pdf
McManus, L.C., Vasconcelos, V.V., Levin, S.A., Thompson, D.M., Kleypas, J.A., Castruccio, S., Curchitser, E.N., and J.R. Watson. 2020. Extreme temperature events will drive coral decline in the Coral Triangle. Global Change Biology. doi:10.1111/geb.14972. .pdf
Molina, C., Akcay, E., Dieckmann, U., Levin, S.A., and E. Rovenskaya. 2020. Combatting climate change with matching-commitment agreements. Nature Scientific Reports 10: 10251. .pdf
Pinsky, M.L., Fenichel, E., Fogarty, M., Levin, S., McCay, B., St. Martin, K., Selden, R.L., and T. Young. 2020. Fish and fisheries in hot water: What is happening and how do we adapt? Population .pdf
Saad-Roy, C.M., Wingreen, N.S., Levin, S.A., and B.T. Grenfell. 2020. Dynamics in a simple evolutionary-epidemiological model for the evolution of an initial asymtomatic infection stage. .pdf
Vasconcelos, V.V., Hannam, P., Levin, S.A., and J. Pacheco. 2020. Coalition-structured governance improves cooperation to provide public goods. Nature Scientific Reports 10, 9194. .pdf
Select Publications 2019
Chang, C.H., Williams, S.J., Zhang, M., Levin, S.A., Wilcove, D.S., and R.-C. Quan. 2019. Perceived entertainment and recreational value motivate illegal hunting in Southwest China. Biological Conservation 234: 100-106. .pdf
Drohan, S.E., Levin, S.A., Grenfell, B.T., and R. Laxminarayan. 2019. Incentivizing hospital infection control. PNAS: 116(13): 6221-6225. .pdf
Tekwa, E., Finichel, E.P., Levin, S.A., and M. Pinsky. 2019. Path-dependent institutions drive alternative stable states in conservation. PNAS 116(2): 689-694. .pdf
Vasconcelos, V.V., Levin, S.A., and F.L. Pinheiro. 2019. Consensus and polarization in competing complex contagion processes. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 16: 20190196. .pdf
Select Publications 2018
Eikeset, A.M., Mazzarella, A.B., Davidsdottir, B., Klinger, D.H., Levin, S.A., Rovenskaya, E., and N.C. Stenseth. 2018. What is blue growth? The semantics of "sustainable development" of marine enviroments. Marine Policy 87:117-179. .pdf
Klein, E.Y., Van Boeckel, T.P., Martinez, E.M., Pant, S., Gandra, S., Levin, S.A., Goossens, H. and R. Laxminarayan. 2018. Global increase and geographic convergence in antibiotic consumption between 2000 and 2015. PNAS:115(15): E3463-3470. .pdf
McManus, L.C., Watson, J.R., Vasconcelos, V.V., and S.A. Levin. 2018. Stability and recovery of coral-algae systems: The importance of recruitment seasonality and grazing influence. Theoretical Ecology: .pdf
Monk, C.T., Barbier, M., Romanczuk, P., Watson, J.R., Alos, J., Nakayama, S., Rubenstein, D.I., Levin, S.A., and R. Arlinghaus. 2018. How ecology shapes exploitation: A framework to predict the behavioral response of human and animal foragers along exploration-exploitation trade-offs. Ecology Letters 21(6): 779-7. .pdf
Moreno, A.R., Hagstrom, G.I., Primeau, F.W., Levin, S.A., and A.C. Martiny. 2018. Marine phytoplankton stoichiometry mediates nonlinear interactions between nutrient supply, temperature, and atmospheric CO2. Biogeosciences 15: 2761-2018. .pdf
Nordbotten, J.M., Levin, S., Szathmary, E., and S.A. Levin. 2018. The ecological and evolutionary dynamics of interconnectedness and modularity. PNAS: 115(4): 751-755. .pdf
Tilman, A.R., Dixit, A., and S.A. Levin. 2018. Localized prosocial preferences, public goods, and common-pool resources. PNAS 116(12): 5305-5310. .pdf
Tilman, A.R., Levin, S.A., and J.R. Watson. 2018. Revenue-sharing clubs provide economic insurance and incentives for sustainability in common-pool resource systems. Journal of Theoretical Biology 454: 205-214. .pdf
Torney, C., Hopcraft, G., Morrison, T., Couzin, I., and S.A. Levin. 2018. From single steps to mass migration: The problem of scale in the movement ecology of the Serengeti wildebeest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences: 373: 20170012. .pdf
Touboul, J.D., Staver, A.C., and S.A. Levin. 2018. On the complex dynamics of savanna landscapes. PNAS: 115(7): E1336-E1345. .pdf
Select Publications 2017
Chang, C.H., Barnes, M.L., Frye, M., Zhang, M., Quan, R.-C., Reisman, L.M.G., Levin, S.A., and D.S. Wilcove. 2017. The pleasure of pursuit: Recreational hunters in rural Southwest China exhibit low exit rates in response to declining catch. Ecology and Society: 22(1): 43. .pdf
Dixit, A. and S.A. Levin. 2017. Social creation of pro-social preferences for collective action. In The Theory of Externalities and Public Goods: A Memorial Volume Honoring Richard C. Cornes, ed. W. Buchholz and D. Rubbelke, 127-143. .Springer.
Fuller, E., Samhouri, J.F., Stoll, J.S., Levin, S.A., and J.R. Watson. 2017. Characterizing fisheries connectivity in marine and social ecological systems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 74(8): 2087-2096. .pdf
Hagstrom, G.I. and S.A. Levin. 2017. Marine ecosystems as complex adaptive systems: Emergent patterns, critical transitions and public goods. Ecosystems: 20(3): 458-476. .pdf
Hannam, P.M., Vasconcelos, V.V., Levin, S.A., and J.M. Pacheco. 2017. Incomplete cooperation and co-benefits: Deepening climate cooperation with a proliferation of small agreements. Climate Change 144(1): 65-69. .pdf
Joshi, J., Couzin, I.D., Levin, S.A., and V. Guttal. 2017. Mobility can promote the evolution of cooperation via emergent self-assortment dynamics. PLoS Computational Biology: 13(9): e1005732. .pdf
Klinger, D., Levin, S.A., and J.R. Watson. 2017. The growth of finfish in global open-ocean aquaculture under climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 284(1864): 20170834. .pdf
Tilman, A.R., Watson, J., and S. Levin. 2017. Maintaining cooperation in social ecological systems: Effective bottom-up management often requires sub-optimal resource use. Theoretical Ecology: 10(2): 155-165. .pdf
Van Boeckel, T. P., Glennan, E.E., Chen, D., Gilbert, M., Robinson, T.P., Grenfell, B.T., Levin, S.A., Bonhoeffer, S., and R. Laxminarayan. 2017. Reducing antimicrobial use in food animals. Science (Insights): 357(6358): 1350-1352. .pdf
Select Publications 2016
Fenichel, E. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2016. Wealth reallocation and sustainability under climate change. Nature Climate Change 6: 237-244. .pdf
Hein et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2016. Natural search algorithms as a bridge between organisms, evolution, and ecology. PNAS: DOI/10.1073/pnas.1606195113. .pdf
Jorgensen, P.S., Wernli, D., Carroll, S.P., Dunn, R.R., Harbarth, S., Levin, S.A., Lo, A.D., Schlueter, M., and R., Laxminarayan. 2016. Use antimicrobials wisely. Nature 537: 159-161.
Hein et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2016. Physical limits on bacterial navigation in dynamic environments. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 13: 20150844. .pdf
Levin, S.A. and A. Lo. What can Mother Nature teach us about managing financial systems? Christian Science Monitor (August 22, 2016) .pdf
Lubchenco, J., Cerny-Chipman, E., Reimer, J.N., and S.A. Levin. 2016. The right incentives enable ocean sustainability successes and provide hope for the future. PNAS: DOI/10.1073/pnas.1604982113 .pdf
Pacheco, J.M., Santos, F.C., and S. Levin. 2016. Evolutionary dynamics of collective index insurance. Journal of Mathematical Biology 72(4): 997-1010. .pdf
Schueter, M., Tavoni, A., and S. Levin. 2016. Robustness of norm-driven cooperation in the commons. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283(1822): 20152431. .pdf
Tilman, A., Watson, J.R., and S. Levin. 2016. Maintaining cooperation in social-ecological systems: Effective bottom-up management often requires sub-optimal resource use. Journal of Theoretical Ecology: DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0318-8. .pdf
Select Publications 2015
Bonachela, J.A. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2015. Termite mounds can increase the robustness of dryland ecosystems to climate change. Science 347(6222): 651-655. .pdf
Bonachela, J.A. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2015. The role of phytoplankton diversity in the emergent oceanic stoichiometry. Journal of Plankton Research : DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbv087. .pdf
Carter, N. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2015. Modeling tiger population and territory dynamics using an agent-based approach. Ecological Modelling 312: 347-362. .pdf
Farrior C. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2015. Decreased water limitation under elevated CO2 amplifies potential for forest carbon sinks. PNAS 112(23)L 7213-7218. .pdf
Hannam, P.M. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2015. Incomplete cooperation and co-benefits: Deepening climate cooperation with a proliferation of small agreements. Climatic Change : DOI: 10.1006/s10584-015-1511-2. .pdf
Levin, S.A. and A.W. Lo. 2015. Opinion: A new approach to financial regulation. PNAS 112(41):12543-12544. .pdf
Morin, B. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2015. The social value of private infectious disease-risk mitigation in a rich/poor world. Theoretical Ecology: DOI: 10.1007/s12080-015-0262-z. .pdf
Schertzer, E., Staver, A.C., and S.A. Levin.  2014.  Implications of the spatial dynamics of fire spread for the bistability of savanna and forest.  Journal of Mathematical Biology 70: 329-341. .pdf
Van Boeckel, T.P. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2015. Global trends in microbial use in food animals. PNAS 112(8): 5649-5654. .pdf
Select Publications 2014
Arrow, K., Ehrlich, P, and S.A. Levin. 2014. Some perspectives on linked ecosystems and socio-economic systems. In Environment and Development Economics: Essays in Honor of Sir Partha Dasgupta, ed. S. Barrett et al., 95-116. Springer-Verlag.
Bonachela, J.A. and S.A. Levin.  2014.  Evolutionary comparison between viral lysis rate and latent period.  Journal of Theoretical Biology 345(21): 32-42. .pdf
Frank, A.B.. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2014. Dealing with femtorisks in international relations. PNAS 111(49): 17356-17362. .pdf
Levin, S.A. 2014. Public goods in relation to competition, cooperation, and spite. PNAS 111 (suppl. 3): 10838-10845. .pdf
Lomas, W. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2014. Impact of ocean phytoplankton diversity on phosphate uptake. PNAS 111(49): 17540-17545. .pdf
Morin, B.R. et al. (including S.A. Levin).  2014.  Disease risk management: The equivalence of two selective mixing strategies on aggregate contact patterns and resulting epidemic spread.  Journal of Theoretical Biology 363: 262-270. .pdf
Reverdy, P., Srivastava, V., and Leonard, N.E.  2014.  Algorithmic models of human decision making in Gaussian multi-armed bandit problems. Proceedings of the 2014 European Control Conference, Strasbourg, France, pp 2210-2215. Won Best Student Paper at the IEEE conference. .pdf
Thompson, S., Levin, S., and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe. 2014. Rainfall temperatures changes have confounding impacts on Phytophthora cinnamomi occurence risk in the southwestern USA under climate change scenarios. Global Change Biology 20: 1299-1312. .pdf
Van Boeckel, T.P. et al. (including S.A. Levin).  2014.  Global antibiotic consumption 2000-2010: An analysis of national pharmaceutical sales data.  Lancet Infectious Diseases 14(8): 742-750. .pdf
Select Publications 2013
Bonachela, J.A., Allison, S.D., Martiny, A.C., and S.A. Levin.  2013.  A model for variable phytoplankton stroichiometry based on cell protein regulation.  BioGeoSciences 10: 3241-3279. .pdf
Levin, S.A., editor-in-chief.  2013.  Encyclopedia of Biodiversity.  Vol. 1-7.  Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Academic Press. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity
Pinsky, M.L. et al. (including S.A. Levin).  2013.  Marine taxa track local climate velocities.  Science 341(6151): 1239-1243. .pdf
Thompson, S., Levin, S., and Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.  2013.  Linking plant disease risk and precipitation drivers: A dynamical systems framework.  The American Naturalist 181(1): 1-38. .pdf 
Torney, C.J., Levin, S.A., and Couzin, I.D.  2013.  Decision accuracy and the role of spatial interaction in opinion dynamics.  Journal of Statistical Physics 151(1-2): 203-217. .pdf
Select Publications 2011-12
Akçay, E. et al. (including S.A. Levin). 2012.  Evolution of cooperation and skew under imperfect information.  PNAS 109(37): 14936-14941. .pdf
Bonachela, J.A., Raghib, M., and S.A. Levin.  2011.  Dynamic model of flexible phytoplankton nutrient uptake.  PNAS 108 (51): 20633-20638. .pdf
Bonachela, J.A., Muñoz, M.A., and S.A. Levin.  2012.  Patchiness and demographic noise in three ecological examples.  Journal of Statistical Physics 148: 723-739. .pdf
Couzin, ID et al (including S.A. Levin).  2011.  Uninformed individuals promote democratic consensus in animal groups.  Science 334: 1578-1580. .pdf
Dixit, A.K., Levin, S.A., and Rubenstein, D.I.  2012.  Reciprocal insurance among Kenyan pastoralists.  Theoretical Ecology: DOI: 10.1007/s12080-012-0169-x. .pdf
Fortuna, M.A., Bonachela, J.A., and S.A. Levin.  2011.  Evolution of a modular software network.  PNAS: 108(50): 19985-19989. .pdf
Staver, A.C., Archibald, S., and S. Levin. 2011. Tree cover in sub-Saharan Africa: Rainfall and fire constrain forest and savanna as alternative stable states. Ecology 92(5): 1063-1072. .pdf
Staver, C.A. and S.A. Levin. 2012. Integrating theoretical climate and fire effects on savanna and forest systems. The American Naturalist 180: 211-224. .pdf
Ziv, G. et al. (including S.A. Levin).  2012.  Trading-off fish diversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.  PNAS 109(15): 5609-5614. .pdf